Assumptions


Carbon calculator development food for thought

Assumption data can vary widely by source (usually due to different studies or geographic locations).

The data we have included in this calculator has been checked with a range of experts to be ballpark correct.

Wherever possible South African assumption data has been used, but in many cases unfortunately reliable data pertaining to South African carbon footprint analysis does not yet exist. We hope that this tool can contribute to the development of such data.

 


 Calculator

Description Value/EF Unit Source/Notes
Petrol 2.3307 kg CO2eq/litre DEFRA GHG conversion factors - updated September 2009 - click here
Diesel 2.6694 kg CO2eq/litre DEFRA GHG conversion factors - updated September 2009 - click here
LPG 1.4968 kg CO2eq/litre DEFRA GHG conversion factors - updated September 2009 - click here
Natural Gas 2.0133 kg CO2eq/m3 DEFRA GHG conversion factors - updated September 2009 - click here
Coal - Domestic Use 3.0291 kg CO2eq/kg DEFRA GHG conversion factors - updated September 2009 - click here
Wood 1.906 kg CO2eq/kg Click here
Electricity 1 kg CO2eq/kWh Source of South African purchased electricity EF: Eskom Annual Report 2008.
Transport
MiniBus Taxi Fuel Type Petrol Assumption
MiniBus Taxi Fuel Efficiency 13.8000 l/100km Assumption
MiniBus Taxi Ave Occupancy 7.0000 Both Directions Excluding Driver
MiniBus Taxi Emissions Factor 0.0433 kg CO2eq/km
Private Taxi Fuel Type Petrol
Private Taxi Fuel Efficiency 8.9800 Assumption
Private Taxi Ave Occupancy 0.8000 Assumption
Private Taxi Emissions Factor 0.2331 Calculated
Local Bus Emissions Factor 0.1115 kg CO2eq/km "The factor for local buses was calculated based on data publically available from the major bus service operators including Stagecoach, First Group, Arriva, National Express, Go-Ahead and from Transport for London, supplemented in some cases by average bus occupancy factors from national statistics. The DfT is currently considering changing the methodology used to calculate local bus CO2 emissions in future years. This approach will make use of actual fuel consumption data submitted by bus operators to the DfT as part of their Bus Service Operators Grant (BSOG) claims."
Long Distance Bus Emissions Factor 0.0306 kg CO2eq/km The emission factor for coach transport is the figure from the National Express Group's Corporate Responsibility Report, available at: click here. National Express are responsible for the majority of long-distance coach services in the UK, so this figure is expected to be broadly representative of the overall average.
Rail 0.0611 kg CO2eq/km The national rail factor refers to an average emission per passenger kilometre for diesel and electric trains in 2007. The calculation of the factor is based on the total electricity and diesel consumed by the railways in 2007/08 from the DfT National Modelling Framework Environment Module, and DfT transport statistics on the total number of passenger kilometres for 2007/08. Emission factors for freight rail are provided in Annex 7, Table 7f.
Aviation
Flight Uplift Factor 0.09 The 9% uplift factor comes from the IPCC Aviation and the global Atmosphere 8.2.2.3 , which states that 9-10% should be added to take into account non-direct routes (i.e. not along the straight line great circle distances between destinations) and delays/circling. Airline industry representatives have indicated that the percentage uplift for short-haul flights will be higher and for long-haul flights will be lower, however specific data is not currently available to provide separate factors. This is under investigation for future versions of these guidelines.
Aviation Multiplier 1.9 "The emission factors refer to aviation's direct carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions only. There is currently uncertainty over the other non-CO2 climate change effects of aviation (including water vapour, contrails, NOx etc) which may indicatively be accounted for by applying a multiplier. The appropriate factor to apply is subject to uncertainty but was estimated by the IPCC in 1999 to be in the range 2-4, with current best scientific evidence suggesting a factor of 1.9. If used, this factor would be applied to the emissions factors set out here."
Domestic Economy 0.0946 kg kg CO2eq/km DEFRA GHG conversion factors - updated September 2009 - click here
Domestic Business 0.1419 kg CO2eq/km
International Economy class 0.0827 kg CO2eq/km
International Premium economy class 0.1324 kg CO2eq/km
International Business class 0.2399 kg CO2eq/km
International First class 0.3309 kg CO2eq/km
International Average 0.1133 kg CO2eq/km
Domestic Average 0.0992 kg CO2eq/km
Water
Municipal - Supply 0.5590 kWh/000l Click here
Municipal - Treatment 0.7560 kWh/000l Click here
Estimated Water Loss Percentage 0.4000 % Click here
Municipal Water Usage 1.7807 kg CO2eq/000l Click here
Bottled Wated 0.32 kg CO2eq/l Click here
Waste
Total Waste Click here
Kitchen/Food Waste 2.793 EPA WARM Model Defra = 2.428+.365, these include production CO2
Garden Waste 0.299 Defra = .089+.21
Paper & Cardboard 1.5 EPA WARM Model Defra Values= 0.95+.55
Plastics 3.14 EPA WARM Model Defra Values = 3.1+0.04
Glass 0.85 EPA WARM Model Defra Values = .84 +.01
Metals 4.69 EPA WARM Model Defra Values
Other 2.941 Estimate
Waste Recycled
Paper & Cardboard 0.237 EPA WARM Model
Plastics 1.6 EPA WARM Model
Glass 0.525 EPA WARM Model
Metals 1.84 EPA WARM Model
Waste Combusted
Paper 1.96 EPA WARM Model
Cardboard 2.04 EPA WARM Model
Waste Composted
Kitchen/Food Waste Composted 2.458 2009 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
Garden Waste Composted 0.146 2009 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
Waste Transport 0.032886477 litres/ton/km EPA. 1998. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From the Management of Selected Materials, Municipal and Ind. Solid Waste Division. December, 1998.
Waste Transport 0.0329 kg CO2eq/ton/km
Total Waste 433.0000 kg/person/year Production and end of life emissions WRAP
Kitchen/Food Waste 65.0 kg/person/year Click here 15% 38%
Garden Waste 60.0 kg/person/year
Paper 70.0 kg/person/year 16% 18%
Cardboard 39.0 kg/person/year 9% -
Plastics 48.0 kg/person/year 11% 7%
Glass 57.0 kg/person/year 13% 7%
Metals 18.0 kg/person/year 4% 8%
Other 76.0 kg/person/year 26% 22%
Distance to Landfill Site 50 kms
Distance to Recycling Site 25 kms
Distance to Combusting Site 50 kms
Distance to Composting Site 0 kms


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